Educational Articles

Medications

  • Cefovecin is given by injection and is used on and off label to treat bacterial infections in dogs and cats. It is typically given by your veterinarian in the veterinary hospital. Side effects are not common but may include sluggishness, and stomach upset. Adverse effects can occur up to two months after an injection. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other beta-lactam antibiotics, and do not use in herbivores. Cefovecin should be used cautiously in pets with kidney disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Cefpodoxime (brand names Simplicef ® and Vantin ®) is an oral antibiotic used to treat certain skin infections in dogs. It may be used off label to treat skin infections in cats and urinary tract infections in dogs. There are very few side effects of cefpodoxime, however it may cause complete loss of appetite in cats which can lead to serious complications. Some medications may interact with cefpodoxime, so it is important to tell your veterinarian about any medications that your pet is taking.

  • Cephalexin (brand names Rilexine®, Keflex®, Vetolexin®) is an oral antibiotic that is used to treat pyoderma and other bacterial skin infections in dogs and is used off label or extra-label in cats to treat pyoderma and some other types of skin infections. It is sometimes used off label or extra-label to treat urinary tract infections in cats and dogs. Side effects to cephalexin are usually mild and rarely occur. It may cause gastrointestinal upset including lack of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Do not use cephalexin in pets that have a known hypersensitivity or allergy to cephalosporins.

  • Cetirizine (brand name Zyrtec®, Reactine®) is an antihistamine used to treat pruritus (itching) associated with atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives), and insect-bite reactions in cats and dogs. Its use is in cats and dogs is ‘off label’ or ‘extra label’. Cetirizine does not typically cause any side effects. Vomiting and increased salivation has been observed in some dogs. Certain drugs are known to interact with cetirizine including central nervous system depressants (e.g., diazepam, alprazolam) and digoxin.

  • Chloramphenicol (brand names Chloromycetin® and Viceton®) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat many different bacterial infections, including those caused by anaerobic bacteria and Rickettsia. Chloramphenicol comes in tablet form, capsules, as a liquid suspension, and also in an injectable form (chloramphenicol sodium succinate). Exposure in humans can have severe consequences that are irreversible, so care must be taken to avoid accidental exposure.

  • Chromium picolinate is given by mouth and is used off label to aid in the treatment of obesity and diabetes, mostly in cats. Side effects are uncommon, but watch for increased drinking or urination, or decreased appetite. Do not give to pets that are allergic to it. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Ciprofloxacin is a systemic fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. It is often given by mouth, but an injectable form is also available. The most common side effect is gastrointestinal distress, but other side effects are possible. It is contraindicated in young or dehydrated pets, or in pets with liver or kidney disease. It should not be the first-choice fluoroquinolone for veterinary patients.

  • Clarithromycin is given by mouth and is used off label to treat certain bacterial infections in several animal species. Side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, appetite changes, stomach pain/cramps, or skin redness in cats. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other macrolide antibiotics, in rabbits, gerbils, guinea pigs, hamsters, or horses greater than 4 months old. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Clonazepam is given by mouth and is used off label to treat seizures and certain behavioral disorders. Common side effects include sleepiness, incoordination, drooling, excitement, or increased appetite. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other benzodiazepines or in pets with significant liver disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Clopidogrel is given by mouth in the form of a tablet or compounded liquid and is used off label to prevent abnormal blood clots in dogs, cats, and horses. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, or lack of appetite. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or that have bleeding problems. If a negative reaction or bleeding occurs, please call your veterinary office.